Mathematical Epistemology is the mathematical science that studies all knowledge. It is simply knowledge about knowledge, or you could say scientific knowledge about scientific knowledge. Mathematical epistemology deals with all aspects of systems of knowledge.
Epistemology as a science is knowledge about knowledge, it is not centered around defining what knowledge is, as does the philosophical aspect of epistemology. Mathematical Epistemology's goal is to represent knowledge and knowledge about knowledge in mathematical form.
One of the goals of mathematical epistemology is to be able to represent scientific theories such as relativity, evolution, etc., in mathematical form. Once there exists this kind of mathematics, all theories could be represented this way. If what we call a "true theory" can be represented we should be able to represent any theory true or false by changing the symbols in the epistemological equation. When ideas are in the form of mathematical representations we can modify the ideas much easier by simply changing symbols. One type of representation is that of an epicontinuum which allow processes like extrapolation etc. The mathematical representation of knowledge allows us to see relationships and structures in knowledge that we would miss other wise; in other words knowledge about knowledge.