Types of supporting evidence
What is meant by a scientific argument or proof? A proof follows from your basic assumptions. It is true or false based on the truth or falseness of the axioms or assumptions and the logic used in the deduction. A scientific argument is not (usually) two people standing around yelling at each other about what they think is right or wrong or how something should be done. It is scientific reasons, well organized, supporting an idea being true or false, or somewhere in between. Any time you can talk someone or other wise convince them into doing something that they would not have done other wise, it is a general definition of an argument won.
A few types of argument are:
Rational experiment: The experiment cannot be done for some reason such as because of its complexity.
The Singular Experiment argument: where we have very complex systems, we cannot at this time do the experiments but nature does it for us but only once. The singular original experiment argument is an example of this type of reasoning.
Coherence argument: A theory should be the most coherent with all the scientific evidence available. In other words it should contradict the sum total of scientific evidence as little as possible.
Simplicity argument: where we have no reason to have a more complex theory to explain the facts then we should go with the simplest theory. The ixperiencit elimination argument is an example of this type of thinking.
Counting or numerical argument: the number fit, the numbers are equal , etc.
Summation of proofs arguments; There is more reason to believe "this" (what ever theory you are trying to support) theory than the next because there are more arguments in favor of it than the others theories.
Good for mankind argument: it true (in the pragmatic sense) because it is good for mankind
Good for the earth argument: It is true (in the pragmatic sense) because it is good for the "earth" in general, for, what ever definition of earth you use such as the ecosystem, animals, etc., of the earth.
Mathematical proof is based on the axioms and type of logic used. It is only as true as the original axioms and logic used.
Summation of facts arguments: this is an empirical inductive argument